Cancerous or malignant tumors can spread locally near the tumor, regionally to lymph nodes or distantly through the blood to other organs such as the lungs, bones, or liver.
The basis for the formation of these masses is that body cells divide and grow in excess. Under normal circumstances, the body has control over the growth and division of cells. The creation of new cells takes place to replace older cells or to meet certain objectives (like healing). Damaged cells or those that are not needed get replaced. A disruption in this balance occurs when cells reproduce too quickly and out of control. This may result in a tumor.
Benign tumors may require excision depending on their size, their location and their malignant potential. Some benign tumors may continue to grow and become large and unsightly or painful and obtrusive. Some benign tumors may impinge on important structures such as the esophagus, the trachea, or other vital structures or nerves or blood vessels. Some benign tumors have the potential to become cancerous tumors if not treated.
Malignant tumors require treatment and may be difficult to diagnose. Symptoms of malignant tumors in the head and neck may include pain, nasal obstruction, difficulty or pain with swallowing, ear pain, hoarseness or change in voice, or weight loss. Catching malignant tumors in their early stages presents the possibility of treating them through surgery. Other possible options are radiotherapy or chemotherapy. If caught after they have spread, a systematic treatments become necessary. These treatments include immunotherapy or chemotherapy.
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